Maria Gruber, Irene Leidolf,
Stephanija Meyer, and Waltraud Wagner (Born 1960) made up
one of the most unusual crime teams in 20th Century Europe. The four
Austrian women were nurses working at Lainz General Hospital in
Vienna, and together murdered scores of patients.
Wagner, 23, was the first to kill a patient with an
overdose of morphine in 1983. She discovered in the process that she
enjoyed playing God and holding the power of life and death in her
hands. She recruited Gruber, 19, and Leidolf, 21, and eventually the
"house mother" of the group, 43-year-old Stephanija Meyer.
However, lethal injection didn't provide enough
excitement, and soon the self-styled "death pavilion" had invented
their own murder method: while one held the victim's head and pinched
their nose, another would pour water into the victim's mouth until
they drowned in their bed. Since elderly patients frequently had fluid
in their lungs, it was an unprovable crime.
They were caught after they were overheard bragging
about their latest murder at a local tavern. In total, they confessed
to 49 murders over six years, but may have been responsible for as
many as 200.
Wagner was convicted of 15 murders, 17 attempts,
and two counts of assault. She was sentenced to life in prison.
Leidolf got life as well, on conviction of five murders, while the
other two drew fifteen years for manslaughter and attempted murder
Waltraud WAGNER, Maria GRUBER, Irene LEIDOLF y
"Angels of Death"
Built in 1839, Lainz General Hospital is the fourth
largest medical facility in Vienna, Austria, with some 2,000 persons
on staff. Pavilion 5 at Lainz is typically reserved for problem cases
--patients in their seventies or older, many of them terminally ill.
In such a setting, death is no surprise. If anything,
it sometimes comes as a relief ... but there are limits, even so.
Beginning in the spring of 1983 and lasting through the early weeks of
1989, Death got a helping hand at Lainz. Officially, the body count
would stand at forty-two, but educated guesses put the final tally
closer to 300 victims for the hospitals hard-working Angels of Death.
Waltraud Wagner, a nurses aide on the graveyard shift at Pavilion 5,
was twenty-four years old when she set the ball rolling in 1983.
As later reconstructed by authorities, she got the
notion of eliminating patients when a 77-year-old woman asked Wagner
to end her misery. Waltraud obliged the lady with a morphine overdose,
discovering in the process that she enjoyed playing God, holding the
power of life and death in her hands. It was too much fun to quit, too
nice to keep from sharing with her special friends.
Over time, Wagner recruited three accomplices, all
working the night shift at Pavilion 5. Maria Gruber, born in 1964, was
a nursing school dropout and unwed mother. Irene Leidolf, two years
older than Gruber, had a husband at home but preferred hanging out
with the girls. Stephanija Mayer, a divorced grandmother twenty years
Waltrauds senior, emigrated from Yugoslavia in 1987 and wound up at
Lainz, soon joining ranks with her murderous cronies.
As described by prosecutors at her trial, Wagner was
the sadistic Svengali of the group, instructing her disciples on the
proper techniques of lethal injection, teaching them the water
cure--wherein a patients nose was pinched, the tongue depressed, and
water was poured down the throat. The victims death, while slow and
agonizing, appeared natural on a ward where elderly patients
frequently die with fluid in their lungs. In the police view, Wagner
awakened their sadistic instincts.
Soon they were running a concentration camp, not a
hospital ward. At the slightest sign of annoyance or complaint from a
patient, theyd plan the patients murder for the following night.
Annoyances, in Waltrauds book, included snoring, soiling the sheets,
refusing medication, or buzzing the nurses station for help at
inconvenient times. In such cases, Wagner would proclaim, This one
gets a ticket to God, executing the murder herself or with help from
one of her accomplices.
Even with four killers working the ward, it took some
time for the deadly game to accelerate. Most of the homicides linked
to Wagner and company occurred after early 1987, when Mayer rounded
out the team, but Waltraud remained the prime mover and head
executioner for what was soon nicknamed the death pavilion.
Rumors of a killer at large on Pavilion 5 were
widespread by 1988, and Dr. Xavier Pesendorfer, in charge of the ward,
was suspended in April 1989 for failure to launch a timely
investigation. Still, it would be negligence among the killers that
led to their ultimate downfall. Waltraud and her cohorts liked to have
a few drinks after work, reliving special cases that amused them,
chuckling over this victims dying expression or that ones
In February 1989 they were giggling over the death of
elderly Julia Drapal--treated to the water cure for refusing
medication and calling Wagner a common slut--when a doctor seated
nearby picked up snatches of the conversation. Horrified, he went to
the police, and a six-week investigation led to the arrest of all four
suspects on April 7.
In custody, the death angels confessed to forty-nine
specific murders. Wagner allegedly claiming thirty-nine of her own.
The ones who got on my nerves, she explained, were dispatched directly
to a free bed with the good Lord. It was not always simple, she
allowed: Of course the patients resisted, but we were stronger. We
could decide whether these old fogies lived or died.
Their ticket to God was long overdue in any case. There
was immediate speculation on a much higher body count, Wagners
accomplices pointing guilty fingers at their mentor in a bid to save
themselves. Alois Stacher, head of Viennas health department, quoted
Irene Leidolf as being convinced that 100 patients were killed by
Wagner in the past two years.
Stephanija Mayer admitted helping Wagner out on several
homicides that Waltraud managed to forget. Indeed, as the case
progressed to trial, Wagner became increasingly reluctant to discuss
her role in the murders. By late 1990, she had backed off her original
boast of thirty-nine victims, claiming a maximum of ten patients
killed to ease their pain.
Chancellor Franz Vranitzky was unimpressed with the
turn-about, calling the Lainz murder spree the most brutal and
gruesome crime in Austrias history. Nor were judge and jury
sympathetic when the four defendants went to trial in March of 1991.
Prosecutors failed to sell their case on forty-two
counts of murder, but they proved enough to do the job. Waltraud
Wagner was convicted of fifteen murders, seventeen attempted murders,
and two counts of aggravated assault, drawing a sentence of life
Irene Leidolf also got life, on conviction of five
murders and two bungled attempts. Stephanija Mayer earned fifteen
years for a manslaughter conviction and seven counts of attempted
murder, while Maria Gruber received an identical term for two murder
Michael Newton -
An Encyclopedia of Modern Serial Killers - Hunting Humans
Angels of Death: The Female Nurses
By Katherine Ramsland - Trutv.com
Medical thriller writer Michael Palmer's first novel was The
Sisterhood. It featured a group of nurses who start an
underground organization to help people to die in hospitals around the
country. "Nurses bound together in mercy," the jacket reads, "pledged
to end human suffering." However, within the organization, some
"mercy-killers" take things too far and patients who should have
survived end up dead. What began as a benign act of compassion became
a wellspring of evil.
This story is fiction. What follows is not.
It was a nurse's aide in Vienna, Austria, who
started the murder spree at Lainz General Hospital. Most of the people
who go there are elderly, many of them with terminal illnesses. It's
not difficult to hide a murder or two among people who are already at
death's door. Even so, it wasn't as if Waltraud Wagner wanted
to kill… not at first, anyway.
It started in 1983 and by the time officials began
to look into the suspicious deaths some six years later, the death
toll stood at 42. However, an unofficial count was in the hundreds.
Wagner, 23, had a 77-year-old patient who one day
asked the girl to "end her suffering." Wagner hesitatingly obliged by
overdosing the woman with morphine. It was then that she discovered
she enjoyed this kind of power, and it didn't take much to recruit
accomplices from the night shift. Maria Gruber, 19, was happy to
join. So was Ilene Leidolf, 21. The third recruit was a grandmother,
43-year-old Stephanija Mayer.
Wagner was the "death pavilion" leader, and they
planned the murders as a group. She taught the others how to give
lethal injections, and she added some fatal mechanisms of her own
creation. The "water cure" involved holding a patient's nose while
forcing him or her to drink. That was an agonizing death that filled
the lungs, but undiscoverable as outright murder. Many elderly
patients had fluid in their lungs.
Moving from compassion to sadism, the women took
out patients who merely annoyed them by soiling sheets or asking for
help too often. Such people were issued their "tickets to God."
At first, these nurses killed sporadically, but by
1987, they were escalating. Rumors began to spread that there was a
killer on Pavilion Five.
It was their own carelessness that finally stopped
them. Over drinks one day, they relived one of their latest cases,
laughing over the patient's distress and the fact that she deserved
her fate. At a table nearby sat a doctor. What he overheard sent him
scurrying to the police station, and they quickly launched an
investigation. It took six weeks, but all four women were arrested on
April 7, 1989. The doctor in charge of their ward was suspended.
Collectively they confessed to 49 murders, and
Wagner took credit for giving a "free bed with the good Lord" to 39 of
them. She had decided that their deaths were long overdue, and she
reveled in the fact that the power over their lives rested with her.
However, one of her accomplices believed that Wagner's death count was
closer to 200 in just the past two years.
As she sat in prison awaiting trial, Wagner scaled
her culpability back to ten murders, all of them for reasons of mercy.
The jury didn't buy it. Ultimately, Wagner was
convicted of 15 murders, 17 attempts, and two counts of assault. She
was sentenced to life in prison. Leidolf got life as well, on
conviction of five murders, while the other two drew 15 years for
manslaughter and attempted murder charges.
As the state attorney put it, "It's a small step
from killing the terminally ill to the killing of insolent, burdensome
patients, and from there to that which was known under the Third Reich
as euthanasia. It is a door that must never be opened again."
Austrians outraged over 'death angels' release
By katie Cooksey - Guardian.co.uk
July 18, 2008
Two Austrian nurses nicknamed "death angels" after
killing at least 20 elderly patients are to be released early from
prison next month.
Waltraud Wagner, 49, and Irene Leidolf, 46, were
convicted in 1991 of taking part in a seven-year killing spree at
Vienna's Lainz hospital, between 1983 and 1989.
During their trial, prosecutors said the women had
forced water into patients' lungs and injected them with large doses
of insulin and tranquilisers, causing "terrible suffering".
Wagner and Leidof argued that their actions were
mercy killings of old and chronically ill patients. Both were
sentenced to life in prison.
However, the country's Justice Ministry today
approved their conditional release on the grounds of good behaviour.
Two accomplices, Maria Gruber and Stefanija Mayer,
were convicted as accessories on lesser charges of attempted murder
and manslaughter. Both were released a few years ago and were issued
with new identities as a precaution against vigilantes.
Officials refused to comment on whether Wagner and
Leidolf would get new identities.
The four women initially admitted involvement in
the deaths of up to 42 elderly patients, but police said they later
retracted most of those confessions.
The imminent release of
Wagner and Leidof has caused widespread outrage in Austria, with
newspaper Heute leading with the headline "The death angels are
The case has led some Austrians to question whether
their sentencing system, in which the maximum life term usually means
15 years, is harsh enough.
Vienna bookkeeper Anna Rietsch said: "It's inhumane
and immoral to execute a killer, but it's not fair to their victims'
loved ones when a killer can look forward to a nice life outside
Austria is still reeling
from the scandal of Josef Fritzl's alleged 24-year imprisonment of a
daughter prosecutors say he used as a sex slave.
Fritzl, a retired engineer, is expected to go on
trial before the end of the year for allegedly holding his daughter
Elisabeth captive in a windowless cell from the age of 18 and
fathering seven children with her.
Fritzl could face a murder charge after it emerged
one of the babies died and the body was allegedly tossed into a
In August 2006, Natascha Kampusch, then 18, escaped
from the windowless cell where kidnapper Wolfgang Priklopil had
confined her for eight-and-a-half years after abducting her as she
walked to school..